Industrial boilers Planner Guide (steam systems 1) 2014 by Hoval USA

More catalogs by Hoval USA | Industrial boilers Planner Guide (steam systems 1) 2014 | 88 pages | 2017-03-17

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Catalog Industrial boilers Planner Guide (steam systems 1) 2014

shell and tube heat exchangers sq ft to ft equivalent length of pipe specific heat of water boiler water treatment high pressure steam boilers steam boiler safety valve setting boiler control panel high pressure boiler high pressure boilers hot water heating systems hot water system heating and cooling system water treatment plant plate heat exchangers pressure relief valves pressure relief valve safety pressure relief valves low pressure relief valve pressure relief valve caps heat load calculation tank water level indicator carbon steel pipe long radius elbow carbon steel pipe 2 6 8 long radius elbows plate heat exchanger water treatment chemicals oil storage tank modulating flow control valves cast iron pipe cast iron pipes 32 carbon steel pipe schedule 40 pipe pressure water level controller schedule 40 pipe water level gauge carbon steel pipes cylinder heads 4 cylinder cylinder heads 6 cylinder used carbon steel pipe process of water treatment schedule 40 pipe fittings water pumps design carbon steel pipe elbow pressure drop off valve weight of mild steel pipe modulating flow control valves for water high pressure compress air piping schedule 40 pipe length schedule 40 pipe dimensions 15 mm diameter pipe 15 mm pipe gasket for flanges schedule 40 pipe fittings dimensions

Industrial boilers Planner Guide (steam systems 1) 2014 is listed under these categories

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Featured catalog pages of Industrial boilers Planner Guide (steam systems 1) 2014

small to medium size steam boilers 4 14 boiler load output – steam quantity 21 15 conversion from “ nm3 ” to “ operating m3 ” gas air smoke gas 22 16 conversion from “operation m3 ” to “nm3 ” gas air smoke gas 22 17 feed water tank and feed water conditioning 23 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 operating temperature cavitation of the boiler feed pump feed tank design feed tank materials feedtank capacity feed tank piping pressurised deaerator conditioning treatment 23 24 25 26 26 26 29 29 18 water preparation for steam boiler plants 30 18.1 good quality steam 18.2 external water treatment 18.3 ion exchange 18.4 base exchange softening 18.5 dealkalisation 18.6 dealkaliser 18.7 demineralisation 18.8 selection of external water treatment plant 18.9 shell boiler plant 18.10 summary 18.11 boiler – and feed water specifications for hoval steam boilers 31 31 32 32 34 34 35 36 36 36

small to medium size steam boilers 6 steam boilers control systems 6.1 capacity control the capacity regulation of the steam boiler is done related to pressure • two levels smaller plants burner on/off and full/min load • modulating bigger plants protection against too high pressure • manometer indication operation pressure • safety pressure limiter switches off firing safety valve leads off the inadmissible over pressure outside 6.2 level control the steam boiler has to be fed with as much water as it evaporates • two levels pump on/off • continuously by pump frequency converter on pump • continuously by regulation valve • three-components regulation protection against water shortage • water level glasses • water shortage safeties protection against overfilling • high water level electrode attention lower loads as approximately 20 are not possible with frequency converters due to min rpm ofpump and needed flow

small to medium size steam boilers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 13 excess of air – calculation λ vl vl stö λ=1 λ=1 ≈ co2,max 21  ≈ co2,metered 21  o2,metered co2,max co2,metered 1 vl effective air quantity m3i.n kg or m3 vtr,stö vl,stö o2 metered 21 – o2 metered λ excess air value vl,stö stoichiometrical air quantity m3 i.n kg or m3/m3 i.n vtr,stö vl,stö vf effective smoke gas quantity wet m3 guide value for vtr,stö vl,stö vtr,stö vl,stö i.n kg or m3/m3 i.n natural gas propane fuel oil extra light diesel heavy fuel oil co2,max max co2-content at stoichiometrical 0,91 0,93 0,93 0,94 combustion vol effective dry smoke gas quantity co2,metered co2-content vol vtr vtr stö λ 1 vl stö vtr,stö effective smoke gas quantity dry m3 i.n kg or m3/m3 i.n effective wet smoke gas quantity at

small to medium size steam boilers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 8 ppm of sodium sulphite is sufficient to deal with 1 ppm of dissolved oxygen however it is usual to add an extra or ‚reserve‘ of 4 ppm of sodium sulphite because • there is a significant danger of corrosive damage • the chemical dosing system is usually ‚open loop‘ with water samples taken at intervals and adjustments made to the dosing rate • there is a concern about complete dispersion of the chemical perhaps due to the method of injection circulation currents or stratification within the feed tank the total dosing rate therefore is 8 ppm of sodium sulphite per 1 ppm of dissolved oxygen plus 4 ppm other oxygen scavengers involve organic compounds or hydrazine the latter however is thought to be carcinogenic and is not generally used in low and medium pressure plants other ‚internal

small to medium size steam boilers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 19 purge pit – part 1 1 general hot boiler water is not allowed to be drained directly into the city sewer network the temperature should normally lower then 60°c depends to local requirements so it´s necessary to cool the boiler waste water and vent the expansion steam before running the water into the sewer system for fast “cool-down” it´s recommended to install a cooling water supply pipe if there´re special requests about drain temperature it may be necessary to install 2 pits in serial connection 2 selection of purge pit size the pit size depends to • boiler size • boiler operation pressure • heat carrier low-pressure steam high-pressure steam low-temperature heating water high temperature water selection is done according selection table see “purgepit – part 2”

small to medium size steam boilers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 conclusion for designing the dimension of condensate lines always check the amount of expansion steam for normal operation conditions of steam systems it´s always to design the condensate line according to expansion steam quantity fig 14.3.2 quantity of flash steam graph 28 pipe expansion and support 28.1 allowance for expansion all pipes will be installed at ambient temperature pipes carrying hot fluids such as water or steam operate at higher temperatures it follows that they expand especially in length with an expansion mm l x Δt x α equation 10.4.1 material where l length of pipe between anchors m Δt temperature difference between ambient temperature and operating temperatures °c α expansion coefficient mm/m °c x 10-3 temperature range °c <0 0 100 0 200 0 300 0 400 0 500 0 600 0 700 carbon steel 0.1 0.2

small to medium size steam boilers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 31 dimensions for gaskets and connections – part 2 dimensions and pressures used at hoval steam systems gaskets for flanges with flat surface according din 2690 dn 65 80 100 125 150 200 250 pn 6 dim 115/77 132/90 152/115 182/141 207/169 262/220 353/274 pn 16 dim 127/77 142/90 162/115 192/141 218/169 262/220 pn 40 dim 127/77 142/90 168/115 195/141 225/169 292/220 dn 65 80 100 125 150 200 250 screws for connections armature armature pn 6 pn 16 pn 40 dim pieces m12x4 m16x4 m16x4 m16x8 m16x8 m16x8 m16x12 length mm 45 55 55 60 60 60 65 dim pieces m16x4 m16x8 m16x8 m16x8 m20x8 m20x12 length mm 60 60 65 70 75 80 dim pieces m16x8 m16x8 m20x8 m24x8 m24x8 m27x12 length mm 65 65 70 75 85 100 dn 65 80 100 125 150 200 250 armature flange pn 6 pn 16 pn 40 dim pieces m12x4 m16x4 m16x4 m16x8 m16x8 m16x8 m16x12 length mm 45 55 55 55 55 60 65 dim

small to medium size steam boilers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 33 steam consumption of plants the optimum design for a steam system will largely depend on whether the steam consumption rate has been accurately established this will enable pipe sizes to be calculated while ancillaries such as control valves and steam traps can be sized to give the best possible results the steam demand of the plant can be determined using a number of different methods • calculation – by analysing the heat output on an item of plant using heat transfer equations it may be possible to obtain an estimate for the steam consumption although heat transfer is not an exact science and there may be many unknown variables it is possible to utilise previous experimental data from similar applications the results acquired using this method are usually accurate enough for most purposes • measurement steam

small to medium size steam boilers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 drying cylinders because of this accurate figures can only be obtained by measurement however certain trusted formulae are in use which enable steam consumption to be estimated within reasonable limits in the case of textile cylinder drying machines counting the number of cylinders and measuring the circumference and width of each will lead to the total heating surface area the two ends of each cylinder should be included and 0.75 m² per cylinder should be added to cover doll heads and frames except where individual trapping is used the radiation loss from the machine while standing measured in kg of steam per hour can be estimated by multiplying the total area by a factor of 2.44 the running load in kg per hour will be obtained by using a factor of 8.3 in imperial units the area will be measured in square feet and the corresponding factors

small to medium size steam boilers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 energy work or amount of heat name of unit symbol british thermal unit iso btuiso british thermal unit international table btuit definition relation to si units 3 1.0545 × 103 j 1.0545 × 10 j 1.055 055 852 62 × 103 j ≈ 1.059 67 × 103 j british thermal unit 39 °f btu39 °f british thermal unit 59 °f btu59 °f british thermal unit 60 °f btu60 °f ≈ 1.054 68 × 103 j british thermal unit 63 °f btu63 °f ≈ 1.0546 × 103 j calorie international table calit 4.1868 j calmean 1/100 of the energy required to warm one gram of air-free water from 0 °c to 100 °c 1 atm calorie mean 1.054 804 × 103 j 1.054 804 × 103 j 4.1868 j ≈ 4.190 02 j foot-pound force ft lbf g × 1 lb × 1 ft 1.355 817 948 331 4004 j foot-poundal ft pdl 1 lb·ft2/s2 4.214 011 009