Aerospace — High-Temperature Machining Guide 2018 by Kennametal

More catalogs by Kennametal | Aerospace — High-Temperature Machining Guide 2018 | 16 pages | 2018-07-24

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high-temperature machining guide iron-nickel-base superalloys metallurgy of superalloys iron-nickel-base superalloys are similar to wrought austenitic stainless steels except for the addition of γ´ strengthening agent they have the lowest elevated temperature strength among the three groups of superalloys and are generally used in the wrought condition in gas turbine disks and blades high-temperature alloys derive their strength from solid solution hardening gamma prime precipitation hardening or oxide dispersion strengthening alloys such as haynes 556 and 19-9 dl are solid solution strengthened with molybdenum tungsten titanium and niobium alloys such as a286 and incoloy 909 are precipitation hardened the most common precipitates are γ´ ni3 [al ti e.g a286 and γ˝ ni3nb e.g incoloy 909 another group of iron-nickel-base alloys contains high carbon content and is strengthened by carbides nitrides and solid solution strengthening a group of alloys based on fe-ni-co

high-temperature machining guide machinability of superalloys as previously mentioned superalloys generally have poor machinability the very characteristics that provide superior high-temperature strength also make them difficult to machine additionally decreased cutting tool speeds can limit productivity • the high capacity for work hardening in nickel-base alloys causes depth-of-cut notching on the tool which can lead to burr formation on the workpiece • the chip produced during machining is tough and continuous therefore requiring acceptable chip control geometry in addition to the challenges mentioned above the metallurgical route by which the components are produced also affects their machinability these materials are easier to machine in the solution annealed soft condition than in the heat-treated hard condition furthermore under similar conditions of heat treatment the iron-nickel-base superalloys are easier to machine than the nickel-base or cobalt-base

high-temperature machining guide machining guidelines for superalloys when machining with carbide tooling • pvd coated carbide tools with positive rakes are suitable for finishing and medium machining — reduces cutting forces and temperatures — minimizes part deflection • always maintain high feed-rate and depth of cut — minimizes hardening • use a generous quantity of coolant with carbide tools — reduces temperature build-up and rapid tool wear • utilize high-pressure coolant whenever possible • for rough cutting t-landed ceramic inserts are recommended • with carbide inserts use moderate cutting speeds — minimizes tool tip temperatures and encourages longer tool life • never allow tool to dwell — minimizes possibility of work hardening and subsequent problems in downstream process when machining with ceramic tooling machining guides • high-temperature machining guide • higher cutting

high-temperature machining guide machining challenges for superalloys www.kennametal.com machining guides • high-temperature machining guide • high-temperature alloys have a low thermal conductivity meaning heat generated during machining is neither transferred to the chip nor the workpiece but is heavily concentrated in the cutting edge area • these temperatures can be as high as 1100°c to 1300°c and can cause crater wear and severe plastic deformation of the cutting tool edge • crater wear can in turn weaken the cutting edge leading to catastrophic failure crater wear resistance is an important tooling property requirement for machining high-temperature alloys • plastic deformation on the other hand can blunt the edge thereby increasing the cutting forces retention of edge strength at elevated temperatures is also a very important tooling requirement while machining high-temperature alloys • the chemical reactivity of these alloys

high-temperature machining guide high-temperature alloy characteristics and troubleshooting nickel-base heat-resistant alloys 140–475 hb ≤48 hrc astroloy hastelloy® b/c/c-276/x inconel® 601/617/625/700/706/718 in100 incoloy® 901 mar-m200 nimonic® rene 41 udimet® waspaloy® monel® material characteristics • high forces at the cutting edge • high heat concentration in cutting area • high cutting speed may cause insert failure by plastic deformation • • • • relatively poor tool life small depths of cut are difficult rapid workhardening usually abrasive rather than hard machining guides • high-temperature machining guide troubleshooting problem solution depth-of-cut notch 1 increase toolholder lead angle 2 use tougher grades like kc5525™ and ky4300™ in -ms -mp and -rp geometries or ceramic grade ky1540 3 use a 0,63mm 025 or greater depth of cut 4 depth of cut should be greater than the

high-temperature machining guide high-temperature alloy characteristics and troubleshooting continued cobalt-base heat-resistant alloys 150–425 hb ≤45 hrc wrought airesist 213 haynes 25 l605 haynes 188 j-1570 stellite cast airesist 13 haynes 21 mar-m302 mar-m509 nasa c0-w-re wi-52 material characteristics • high forces at the cutting edge • high heat concentration in cutting area • high cutting speed may cause insert failure by plastic deformation • cast material more difficult to machine than wrought • • • • relatively poor tool life small depths of cut are difficult rapid workhardening usually abrasive rather than hard problem solution depth-of-cut notch 1 increase toolholder lead angle 2 use a tougher carbide grade like kc5525™ or ceramic grades ky1540™ ky2100™ or ky4300™ 3 use a 0,63mm 025 or greater depth of cut 4 program a ramp to vary depth of cut 5 feed greater than 0,12mm 005 ipr 6 use

high-temperature machining guide new cutting tool technologies grades kc5510™ and kc5525™ kennametal’s advanced pvd tiain coated carbide grades kc5510 and kc5525 in high positive rake geometries gg-fs and mg-ms have overcome many of the problems associated with machining heat-resistant alloys and titanium materials these new products are revolutionizing productivity in finishing and medium machining of super alloys cutting speeds as high as 122m/min 400 sfm can be attained with finishing grade kc5510 typically speeds can be doubled over a conventional pvd product with no impact on tool life see figure 1 cngg-432 tialn tool life 7.5 minutes kennametal’s cngg-432fs kc5510 tool life 26.5 minutes figure 1 comparison of a conventional tiain coated carbide insert versus kennametal’s advanced pvd grade 92m/min/300 sfm 0,12mm 005 ipr 0,25mm 010 doc 718 inconel® 38 hrc grade kc5525 utilizes the same advanced pvd coating as grade kc5510 combined with a

high-temperature machining guide new cutting tool technologies continued grades kc5510™ and kc5525™ machining guides • high-temperature machining guide gg-fs finishing sharp mg-ms medium sharp micrograph cross-section of the cutting edge the higher cobalt content provides added security in interrupted cuts while the fine-grain tungsten maintains deformation resistance relative tool life finish turning of inconel® 718 28 hrc cngg-432fs 92m/min 300 sfm–0,12mm 005 ipr–.010 doc competitor 1 competitor 2 competitor 3 conventional pvd kc5510 figure 2 kennametal’s advanced pvd grade kc5510 compared to best-in-class competitive grades a14

high-temperature machining guide ® medium machining of inconel 718 grades kc5510™ in developing these products kennametal conducted extensive metalcutting tests internally and in conjunction with our customers in more than 100 tests these new high-performance products outperformed the competition 95 of the time figures 3–5 document tool life in minutes helical cutting length in meters/feet and volume of metal removed in cu3/min for grade kc5510 cngg-432fs and cnmg-432ms materials machined were 152mm/6 diameter bars of inconel 718 39 hrc and ti-6al-4v 30 hrc feed rates and depths of cut employed in these internal tests are indicated in the test results end-of-tool-life criteria used are 0,30mm 012 flank-wear nose wear or depth of cut and 0,10mm 004 crater depth use this metalcutting data as a benchmark for planning your machining operations to realize optimum economy calculate the helical cutting length based on the feed rate workpiece diameter and length of cuts

high-temperature machining guide ® machining guides • high-temperature machining guide medium machining of inconel 718 continued ky4300™ is the benchmark ky1540™ is proven compared to ky1540 ky4300 can be expected to perform with lower wear levels and offer higher speed capabilities ky1540 has advantages in toughness and depth-of-cut notch resistance but the excellent wear resistance of ky4300 will produce better surface finishes cut with lower forces and enable higher speeds versus the sialon grades • in turning and milling applications • as a cost-effective replacement for expensive whisker ceramic cutting tools • in a broad range of high-temp alloy applications including — inconel® products and other nickel-based materials — stellites and other cobalt-based materials • in a wide variety of machining conditions including interrupted cuts and applications involving scale whisker-shaped beta sialon grains enhance fracture

high-temperature machining guide ® medium machining of inconel 718 continued ky2100™ • excellent finisher • extremely wear-resistant • ideal for high-speed turning and milling applications • well-suited for finishing cuts involving a broad range of high-temperature alloys • excellent for turning of hardened high-temperature alloys 48 hrc ky4300™ • benchmark machining guides • high-temperature machining guide ky2100 speeds/wear resistance ky4300 • excellent surface finish lower cutting force higher speeds • silicon carbide whiskers deliver longer tool life and increased toughness ky1540 feeds/toughness ky1540™ • proven • long consistent tool life • excellent toughness and depth-of-cut notch resistance • performs in a wide variety of machining conditions including interrupted cuts and applications involving scale www.kennametal.com