Interpave Understanding Permeable Paving 2016 by Marshalls

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permeable paving principles in conventional pavements rainwater is allowed to run across the surface to gulleys that collect and direct it into pipes removing it as quickly as possible this means that water with the pollutants contained in it are rapidly conveyed into overloaded drains streams and rivers leading to floods in extreme conditions in contrast cbpp addresses both flooding and pollution issues it also has a dual role acting as the drainage system as well as supporting traffic loads cbpp allows water to pass through the surface – between each block – and into the underlying permeable sub-base where it is stored and released slowly either into the ground to the next suds management stage or to a drainage system unlike conventional road constructions the permeable sub-base aggregate is specifically designed to accommodate water at the same time many pollutants are substantially removed and treated within the cbpp itself before water

permeable paving performance benefits there are three well-known pillars of suds which cbpp successfully achieves u quantity – management of rainwater and avoidance of flooding u quality – removal and treatment of diffuse pollution from runoff u amenity – improvement of the external environment in addition cbpp offers a range of other unique benefits and opportunities quantity – rainwater management cbpp deals with surface water close to where rainfall hits the ground this is known as ‘source control’ and is fundamental to the suds philosophy it also reduces the peak rate total volume and frequency of runoff and helps to replicate green-field runoff characteristics from development sites a study by h r wallingford kellagher and lauchlin 2003 confirms that cbpp is one of the most space-efficient suds components available as it does not require any additional land take in fact it can handle runoff from roof drainage and

permeable paving law quo or has a negative impact then this can be a valid reason for refusal’ of planning applications planning policy in scotland comprehensive advice covering all aspects of suds is contained within a single planning advice note pan 61 – planning and sustainable urban drainage systems this clearly requires planners to have ‘a central co-ordinating role in getting suds accepted as an integral part of the development process planning policy should set the framework in structure and local plans and in master-planning exercises in implementing suds on the ground planners have a key role through the development control process from pre-application discussions through to decisions in bringing together the parties and guiding them to solutions which can make a significant contribution to sustainable development.’ different national guidelines apply around the uk to influence local planning authorities lpas both in formulating their local policies

water strategy for england the new strategy future water launched by the environment minister in february 2008 includes several proposals that have a major impact on cbpp along with other suds techniques there has been some confusion over responsibilities and adoption limiting take-up of permeable paving by developers – an issue which the government is now determined to address with a consultation process interpave supports the principles set out in future water and is actively involved with defra as part of this consultation adding its expertise on cbpp to ensure a clear and viable outcome future water proposes that surface water management plans will be required to co-ordinate activity clarifying responsibilities for suds and their adoption by local authorities in line with the planning policies discussed earlier it also calls into question the automatic right to connect surface water drainage for new developments to the public sewer strengthening pressure to use alternative

water harvesting with cbpp rainwater harvesting is a system where runoff from roofs and hard surfaces is c collected and used in or around buildings the water can be used for a range of non-potable uses such as toilet flushing and watering gardens the runoff used for harvesting needs to be free of debris and sediments filtration and storage with cbpp is an efficient means of achieving this requirement sustenance for planting combining cbpp and impermeable surfaces generally the traffic loading pavement thickness required is greater than the water storage pavement thickness required resulting in “spare” water storage capacity within the pavement without exceeding the pavement depth determined for the traffic loading it is possible to utilise this “spare” water storage capacity to drain roofs or other adjacent impermeable surfaces a b c cbpp sub-base alternatives there are a number of permeable sub-base replacement systems on a the market that

implementation impermeable footway or service strip location of services planning for cbpp permeable paving cbpp is an established mainstream technology supported by a wealth of experience but there are differences compared with conventional impermeable paving the implications of which must be fully understood by all involved therefore full liaison and discussion between all stakeholders is essential from the earliest stage – before a planning application – and must include those responsible for long-term maintenance including adoption officers planners should also embrace their key role as suds coordinators as required by governmental planning policy cbpp layout design experience has shown that thoughtful handling of services is key to the long-term success of cbpp projects it is not necessary to design all paved areas as permeable as we have seen cbpp can cope with runoff from adjacent impermeable surfaces including roofs with careful layout design services and

constructing cbpp maintaining cbpp comprehensive guidance on specification and construction of complete permeable pavements is available in the interpave guidance the concrete block layer should be constructed in accordance with bs 7533 part 3 2005 code of practice for laying precast concrete paving blocks and clay pavers for flexible pavements and machine laying techniques can be used for greater efficiency as discussed earlier evidence to date suggests that infiltration rates always remain significantly higher than rainfall intensity so – even without maintenance – there should be sufficient infiltration to accommodate rainfall events some manufacturers do recommend sweeping twice a year as a precaution against clogging but should be no greater than is normally undertaken on conventional paving and experience suggests that this is rarely carried out on many sites where cbpp is still working and of course the maintenance required for

case studies hazeley school milton keynes suds consultant robert bray associates architects architecture mk subgrade ground conditions poor permeability – heavy clay c particular constraints the site is a natural habitat for great crested newts – a “protected species” under national and european legislation constructed in various phases since 2005 techniques terraced cbpp on sloping ground cbpp used adjacent to buildings runoff from roofs and impervious surfaces handled and harvesting for toilet flushing special interest encouraging biodiversity by eliminating gratings and gulley pots where wildlife can be trapped in lethal toxic liquors hazeley school provides impressive examples of cbpp taking an holistic approach to achieve several sustainable aims it consists of two distinct phases firstly footpaths car parking cycle racks and other paved areas terraced down land sloping away from the school building these areas are surfaced in both impermeable

case studies martlesham park and ride suffolk designed by suffolk county council environment and transport architects and landscape designers mouchel subgrade ground conditions a good permeability particular constraints the site is part of a designated ‘special landscape area’ and also part of a ‘county wildlife site’ with mature trees requiring sustenance total area of cbpp 14,000m2 constructed in 2003 techniques cbpp used in isolation special interest the car parking layout was designed to accommodate existing mature trees the park and ride facility at martlesham was one of suffolk county council’s top priority transport schemes and the third park and ride to be built serving ipswich offering sustainable transport alternatives to the car the site occupies a total of 3.2ha and has space for 530 cars the key challenge for the project was to mitigate the adverse environmental and landscape effects of the development by incorporating cbpp and other suds

case studies superstore exeter engineers white young green drainage design interpave member subgrade ground conditions rock c particular constraints a discharge restriction into a sewer was applied by the environment agency demanding additional storage on site constructed in 2006 techniques optimisation of gradients to create additional storage within the cbpp and elimination of conventional drain run excavation within rock special interest cbpp avoided the need to excavate into rock for conventional drainage runs and storage facilities the scheme involved an extension to an existing superstore car park the new parking area joined the existing car park at a gradient of approximately 1:50 due to the slope of the site and the discharge restriction imposed the usual hydraulic design depth was not adequate for the entire site therefore a system was designed so that the lower edge of the car park had additional sub-base material for water storage to achieve this end the sub-grade gradient

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